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Glossary of Terms


Auger tool or device having a helical shaft or member that is used for boring holes (as in wood, soil, or ice) or moving loose material (as snow)
Bolt on Hinge more adjustable than the fixed hinge, can be added at any time
Feed Bunk long trough for feeding livestock
Fixed Hinge assembly during manufacturing, less adjustable than the bolt on hinge
Loop Legs oval support legs that allow panels to be easily moved when portability is desired
Panel used for livestock and horse arenas, feedlot dividers, pens, fencing, etc.
Utility Gate made of tubular steel, more economical and durable than other gates
V-Rack add-on rack to a feed bunk designed in a "V" shape to increase capacity
Verticals vertical bars on the inside of a gate's outer frame to increase the panel's strength
WBF Western Bale Feeder

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Annealed process where glass, metals, and other materials were treated to render them less brittle and more workable
Certified meets certain specifications and standards, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Galvanized to coat (metal, especially iron or steel) with zinc
Tensile capable of being stretched or drawn out; ductile

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Annealed process where glass, metals, and other materials were treated to render them less brittle and more workable
Baling Wire otherwise known as "farm wire" or "soft wire," is primarily used in an agricultural setting for everything from mending fences to manually binding square bales of hay, straw, or cut grass.
Knot Strength refers to the ability of a loaded knot to resist breaking. It is one of the basic elements of knot performance and of knot safety
Monofilament a single, generally large filament (a single fibril of natural or synthetic textile) fiber
Photo Degradable capable of being broken down by light
Sisal fiber used for making rope, etc.
Slit Film low cost Polypropylene twine, used as a sisal substitute in cordage
Tensile capable of being stretched or drawn out; ductile
Tensile Strength the resistance of a material to longitudinal stress, measured by the minimum amount of longitudinal stress required to rupture the material
Twine a strong thread or string composed of two or more strands twisted together

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Cupola a light structure on a dome or roof, serving as a belfry, lantern, or belvedere
Corrugated to draw or bend into folds or alternate furrows and ridges
Fascia any of a number of horizontal bands, usually three in number, each projecting beyond the one below to form the architrave in the Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite orders
Flashing pieces of sheet metal or the like used to cover and protect certain joints and angles, as where a roof comes in contact with a wall or chimney, especially against leakage
Galvanized to coat (metal, especially iron or steel) with zinc
Girt a timber or plate connecting the corner posts of an exterior wooden frame, as a braced frame, at a floor above the ground floor; a heavy beam, as for supporting the ends of rafters
Jamb either of the vertical sides of a doorway, arch, window, or other opening
Neoprene a tough, synthetic rubber that is resistant to the effects of oils, solvents, heat, and weather
Polycarbonate a synthetic thermoplastic resin, a linear polymer of carbonic acid, used for molded products, films, and non-breakable windows
Soffit the underside of an architectural feature, as a beam, arch, ceiling, vault, or cornice
Substrate something that underlies or serves as a basis or foundation

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Pallet Terms

Block - rectangular, square or cylindrical deck spacer, often identified by its location within the pallet as corner block, end block, edge block, inner block, center or middle blocks.

Block Pallet - type of pallet with blocks between the pallet decks or beneath the top deck.

Bottom Deck - assembly of deck boards comprising the lower, load bearing surface of the pallet.

Captive Pallet - intended for use within the confines of a single facility, system or ownership; not intended to be exchanged.

Deck - one or more boards or panels comprising the top or bottom surface of pallet

Deckboard - element or component of pallet deck, oriented perpendicular to the stringer or stringer board.

Deckboard Spacing - distance between adjacent deckboards.

Deckboard Span - distance between deckboard supports (stringers, stringer boards or blocks)

Double-Face Pallet - pallet with top and bottom decks.

Double-Wing Pallet - pallet with top and bottom deckboards extending beyond the edges of the stringers or stringer boards.

Exchange Pallet - pallet intended for use among a designated group of shippers and receivers where ownership of the pallet is transferred with the ownership of the unit load; common pool pallet.

Expendable Pallet - pallet intended for a series of handlings during a single trip from shipper to receiver; it is then disposed; see Shipping Pallet.

Fastener - mechanical device for joining pallet components such as nails, staples, bolts or screws.

Flush Pallet - pallet with deckboards flush with the stringers, stringer boards, or blocks along the sides of the pallet.

Fork Entry - opening between decks, beneath the top deck or beneath the stringer notch to admit forks.

Four-Way Block Pallet - pallet with opening on both pallet ends and along pallet sides sufficient to admit hand-pallet jacks; full four-way entry pallet.

Hand (Wheel) Jack Opening - space provided in the bottom deck to allow pallet jack wheels to bear on the floor.

Hardwood - wood from broad-leaved species of trees (not necessarily hard or dense)

Length - refers to the stringer or stringer board (in block pallets) length; also refers to the first dimension given to describe a pallet i.e. 48" x 40", where 48" is the pallet stringer/stringer board length.

Line Load - weight of a unit load concentrated along a narrow area across the full length or width of the pallet.

Non-Reversible Pallet - pallet with bottom deckboard configuration different from top deck.

Notch - cutout in lower portion of the stringer to allow entry for the fork tine.

Notched Stringer - stringer with two notches spaced for fork tine entry.

Opening Height - vertical distance measured between decks, from the floor to the underside of the top deck, or from the floor to the top of the stringer notch.

Overall Height - vertical distance measured from the floor to the top side of the top deck.

Overhang - distance the deck extends from the outer edge of the stringer or stringer board; wing; lip; distance the unit load extends beyond the deck.

Pallet - portable, horizontal, rigid platform used as a base for assembling, storing, stacking, handling and transporting goods as a unit load, often equipped with a superstructure.

Pallet Dimensions - when specifying pallet size, the stringer or stringer board (block pallet) length is always expressed first; for example, a 48" x 40" pallet has a 48" stringer or stringer board and 40" deckboards.

Pallet Jack - hand propelled wheeled platform, equipped with a lifting device for moving palletized unit loads.

Pallet Life - period during which the pallet remains useful, expressed in units of time or in the number of one-way trips.

Panel Deck Pallet - pallet constructed with composite or structural panel top deck.

Partial Four-Way Stringer Pallet - pallet with notched stringers.

Post Pallet - pallet fitted with posts or blocks between the decks or beneath the top deck; see Block Pallet.

Rental Pallet - pallet owned by a third party, different from the actual pallet user.

Returnable/Reusable Pallet - pallet designed to be used for more than one trip.

Reversible Pallet - pallet with identical top and bottom decks.

Shipping Pallet - pallet designed to be used for a single one-way trip from shipper to receiver; it is then disposed.

Single-Wing Pallet - pallet with top deckboards extending beyond the edges of the stringers or stringerboards with the bottom deckboards flush (if present).

Skid - pallet having no bottom deck.

Slave Pallet - pallet, platform or single thick panel used as a support base for a palletized load in rack-storage facilities or production systems.

Softwood - wood from coniferous or needle-bearing trees (not necessarily soft or low density)

Solid Deck Pallet - pallet constructed with no spacing between deckboards.

Span - distance between stringer or block supports.

Strap Slot - recess or cutout on the upper edge of the stringer or the bottom of the top deckboard to allow tie-down of a unit load to the pallet deck with strapping/banding, also called the banding notch.

Strapping - thin flat bands used to secure load to pallet.

Stringer - continuous, long itudinal, solid or notched beam-component of the pallet used to support deck components, often identified by location as the outside or stringer pallet.

Stringerboard - in block pallets, continuous, solid board member extending for the full length of the pallet perpendicular to deckboards members and placed between deck boards and blocks.

Two-Way Entry Pallet - pallet with un-notched solid stringers allowing entry only from the ends.

Unit Load - assembly of goods on a pallet for handling, moving, storing and stacking as a single entity.

Warehouse Pallet - double-face multiple trip returnable pallet intended for general warehouse use.

Wing - overhang of deckboard end from outside edge of stringer or stringer board.

Glue Laminated Building Columns

Glulam, short for glued laminated timber, is an engineered wood product. Large glulam members are produced from smaller pieces of stress graded and seasoned timber, known as laminates.

Glulam offers many benefits when it comes to structural applications:
Large section sizes and long lengths - glulam can be manufactured curved or straight and is often used a structural beams. Finger jointing allows for long lengths.

Increased strength due to the laminating process - glulam is stronger that solid timber as it has fewer natural defects and a wider distribution. It is also comparable to steel in strength but is much lighter.

A high degree of dimensional stability - glulam is manufactured from seasoned timber and therefore less prone to movement caused by changes in moisture content. Care needs to be taken if they are used externally or in an environment with rapidly changing humidity. Swelling and shrinkage may lead to splitting or, in an extreme event, delamination of the beam.

Reliability - glulam is manufactured to strict quality requirements from stress-graded timber of known structural capacity.

Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) LVL is a high-strength engineered wood product. Comparable in strength to solid timber, concrete and steel and is manufactured by bonding together rotary peeled or sliced thin wood veneers under heat and pressure. Used for permanent structural applications including beams, lintel, purlins, truss chords and formwork.
Ponderosa and Sugar Pine Most commonly used of western soft woods. Excellent workability and texture for ease of use. Pine is a favorite wood to choose for a variety of patterns.
Douglas-Fir One of the best western woods. Used in manufacturing of more products than any other wood species. Reliable and workable.
Incense-Cedar Recognized for its resistance to decay. Sweet smelling wood is specially kiln dried to insure dimensional stability. Superb for patterns.
California White Fir One of the most versatile soft woods in America. Non-resinous, fine textured, mills accurately, and remains straight. Widely used in residential and light commercial construction.
Western Hemlock Characteristics similar to White Fir.

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Terms A-Z

Across the Grain Generally perpendicular to the grain direction.
Actual Dimensions Exact measurements of a piece of lumber.
Adhesion Substance in which two surfaces are held together by inter-facial forces.
Adhesive Substance capable of bonding material together by surface attachment.
Against the Grain A reference to the cutting direction following the grain downward into the wood below.
Age Mean age of dominant trees.
Air-Dried Lumber Lumber that is dried to equilibrium moisture content with the air it was exposed to.
Along the Grain Generally parallel to grain direction.
American Lumber Standard Established standard sizes and requirements.
Attached Deck Deck with one or more sides supported by a ledger and attached to a house.
AWLS Term used indicating that all widths and lengths of a specified thickness of lumber may be included in a shipment.
Balanced Construction Symmetrical construction of plywood or other composites having matching layers on both sides of the central plane so that changes in moisture content will not cause warp.
Baluster One of a series of vertical supports used between posts of a railing. Also called spindle.
Band Saw Saw with a looped blade running around two or three wheels. Used with narrow blades for cutting freehand shapes, or with wider blades and a guide for re-sawing material.
Band Strength Ability of a saw blade to resist deflection determined by width and thickness (AKA beam strength)
Bark Pocket Opening between annual growth rings that contain bark. Appear as streaks on radial surfaces and as rounded areas on tangential surfaces.
Basal Area Cross sectional area of a tree, in square feet, measured by breast height. Used as a method of measuring timber volume in a given stand.
BD Board
BDFT Board foot
BDL Bundle
Bead Semicircular piece of molding
Beam Main horizontal member in a building frame
Beams & Stringers Large pieces of rectangular cross section
Beneficiation Process used to upgrade chips, making them more acceptable for paper and pulp manufacture.
Bent Structural section of a frame which is composed of a line of vertical posts and the horizontal timbers that connect them
Birch Yellow sapwood, reddish-brown heartwood. High bending strength, crushing strength used for furniture, flooring, cabinets
Biscuit Joint Butt joint that is reinforced with a football shaped "biscuit". Made from compressed pieces of wood, most commonly birch.
Block Plane Small plane used to finish off rough deck edges.
Bloodwood Heartwood varies from gray-red to deep rich red. High bending and crushing strength.
Bloom Crystals formed on surface of treated wood.
Blow Development of steam pockets during hot pressing, resulting in an internal separation or rupture when pressure is released. Usually in plywood and particleboard.
Blue-Stain Pine sapwood discoloration. Used as high-quality interior finish.
Blue-Stain Fungus Most common form of sapwood fungal stain.
BM Board measure
Board Foot Basic unit of lumber measurement
Board Measure Indicates that a board foot is the unit of measure.
Boards Lumber 2 inches or more wide that is normally less than 2 inches thick.
Bookmatch Term used in sawing or veneering. Resembles a mirror image of the opposite side.
Bond Strength Unit load required to break adhesive assembly.
Bow Defective piece of lumber that has warped.
Box Beam Built-up beam with solid wood flanges and plywood or wood-based panel product webs.
Box Joint Corner joint made of interlocking "fingers".
Box Lumber Factory lumber graded for box cutting value.
Braces Smaller timbers placed diagonally between posts and girts to make structure more rigid.
Bracing Supports placed between posts and beams or joists to provide structural stability.
Breaking Radius Limiting radius of curvature to which wood or plywood can be bent without breaking.
Bridging Boards placed perpendicularly between joists to stiffen the joists.
BTR Better
Bullnose Process of rounding an edge of a board.
Butt Joint Woodworking joint where the edges of two boards are placed against each other.
Carload Railroad car loaded to meet minimum weight requirements for carload rates.
Carriage Bolt Bolt with a rounded head that is pulled down onto the surface of the wood as the nut is tightened. Used to hold structural members together.
Case Hardening Lumber defect caused when a board is dried too fast or improperly.
Casing Usually run to pattern and is widely used for interior trim.
Catalyst Substance that initiates or changes rate of chemical reaction but is not consumed or changed by the reaction.
Caul Veneering Method where the veneers are cut square, taped together and laid as a single sheet without preliminary dampening.
CB Center beaded
Cellulose Carbohydrate that is principal constituent of wood and forms the framework of wood cells.
Center Beaded Patterned lumber shaped to form a narrow half-circle along the center of its length.
Center Match (CM) Lumber that has been worked with a tongue exactly in the center on one edge of each piece and a groove on the opposite edge to provide a close tongue-and-groove joint.
Center V (CV) Patterned lumber shaped to form and an angled groove along the center of its length.
Chalk Line An enclosed reel of string coated with colored chalk and used to mark straight lines by pulling the string taut and snapping the string.
Chamfer Bevel or slope created by slicing off the square edge or end of a piece of wood; decorative edging or relief made at timber's corner.
Check Lumber defect caused by uneven shrinking of wood during drying.
Chip Small piece of wood used to make pulp.
Chipboard Normally made from paper stock with a relatively low density.
Chipped Grain Machining defect usually a result of cutting against the grain.
Cladding Application of one material over another to provide a protective layer against weather elements.
Clear (CLR) Board free from defects.
Cleavage An adhesively bonded joint.
Clevis "U"-shaped metal fitting used for connecting cables.
CLF Hundred lineal feet.
Close Grain Wood with narrow and inconspicuous annual rings; "fine textured".
Closed Coat Sandpaper whose surface is completely covered with abrasive particles.
Coarse-Grained Wood with wide and conspicuous annual rings.
Cock Bead Any bead which stands raised from the surface.
Cohesion State in which constituents of a mass of material are held together by chemical and physical forces.
Cold Pressing Binding operation in which assembly is subjected to pressure without heat.
Collapse The flattening of single cells or a row of cells in hardwood during the drying or pressure treatment of wood.
Collar Tie Timber placed horizontally and between rafters that control sagging or spreading of the rafters.
Column Structural member usually subject to longitudinal compression.
Combination Square Square that measures both 45 degrees and 90 degree angles.
Come Along Hand operated ratching wrench.
Compression Wood Identified by its relatively wide annual rings, abnormal.
Composite Assembly Combination of two or more materials bonded together that perform a single nit.
Compound Curvature Wood bent in which no element is a straight line.
Compound Cut Angled cut to both the edge and face of board.
Compound Miter Angled cut to both the edge and face of board, most common use is crown molding.
Composite Decking Deck boards manufactured from wood fiber and plastic. Sold as an alternative to wood decking.
Concave Inward-curving shape.
Contact Angle Angle between a substrate plane and the free surface of a liquid droplet at the one of contact with the substrate.
Convex Outward-curving shape.
Cope-and-Stick Joint Method of construction raised panel doors.
Cord Unit of measurement often used for firewood.
Countersink Tool that drills a hole so that the head of the screw sits flush with the face of the board.
Coupling Agent Molecule with different or like functional groups that is capable of reacting with surface molecules of two different substances.
Cross Grain Deviation of grain direction.
Crossbands In plywood with more than three piles, the veneers immediately beneath the faces, having grain direction perpendicular to that of the faces.
Curl Term used to describe what happens to wood as it grows.
Cut-Full Lumber Lumber intentionally manufactured in larger than normal thickness and width, usually to allow for shrinkage.
CWT Hundred weights.
D2S Lumber that has been dressed on two sides.
E&CB2S Edge and center bead two sides.
E&CV1S Edge and center V one side.
E&CV2S Edge and center V two sides.
EB1S Edge bead one side.
EB2S Edge bead two sides.
Face When a board has one side wider than the other, the wider side is referred to as the face.
Face Width Width of the face of lumber.
FBM Feet board measure.
Fiddleback Washboard-like figure that occurs in some species of wood with a wavy grain.
Figure Any distinctive appearance on a longitudinal wood surface resulting from anatomical structure, irregular coloration or defects.
Finger Joint Method of joining two pieces of lumber end-to-end by sawing a set of projecting "fingers" that interlock.
FOB Free on board.
Framing Lumber used for structural members in a house or other building.
Framing Lumber Lumber used to construct a building or structure.
Framing Square Flat piece of metal shaped like an "L" with measurements along both legs.
FRT Freight
Girt Major horizontal timber that connects posts.
Girth Circumference of a tree.
Glue Joint Special interlocking groove pattern that is used to join two pieces, edge to edge.
Glue Laminating Bonding of two or more layers of wood together with adhesive.
Hardboard Manufactured board similar to particle board but with a smoother surface.
Hardwood General term referring to any variety of broad-leaved, deciduous trees, and the wood from those trees.
Hollow-Core Construction Panel construction with material bonded to a framed-core assembly.
Internal Stresses Stresses that exist within an adhesive joint even in the absence of applied external forces.
Intumesce To expand with heat to provide a low-density film.
J & P Joists and planks.
Janka Test A hardness test, usually for wood flooring.
Jig Device used to make special cuts, guide a tool, or aid in woodworking operations.
Joist Lumber used horizontally as a support for a ceiling or floor.
Joist Hanger Pre-manufactured metal piece typically attached to a ledger or beam to support a joist.
KD Kiln dried.
Kerf Groove left in a board when cut by a saw blade.
Kiln Room or building where air circulation, moisture, and temperature are controlled to dry wood.
Kink Form of warp.
Laminate Thin plastic material used to cover a board.
Laminated Wood Wood built up of plies or layers that have been joined.
Southern Yellow Pine Heavier, stronger and harder than many other species. Ideal for outside use. Used in construction as subflooring and sheathing, joists and framing.

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